This poem creates an experiential gestalt for the word as it becomes what it means.
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Employing the basic CONDUIT metaphor which views words as containers for meaning Reddy , this word becomes visually empty as a material container on the page. At the same time, since the poem can still be scanned and said as one word, rather than two small words, the phonic integrity remains cohesive.
Furthermore, since conventionally text should fill the page, the material, relative emptiness of the page is also ironically highlighted. This poem does not express propositional content but goes straight to experiential meaning, highlighting the visual components and conventions of written language which in turn prompt a simulated experience of emptiness.
This type of reading derives from deconstructionist, poststructuralist, and postmodern views of language as a wholly arbitrary, symbolic system of exchange. As even the above brief example shows, the poems do not necessarily break down meaning but re-scribe and build it in visually salient ways, thereby prompting a richer perceptual and conceptual construction. However, even in these poems the meaningfulness of visual cues like lines, figure-ground effects, and so forth—all tied to at least a rudimentary recognition of letter forms—construct a visceral, perceptual, and often affective meaning see Johnson [ ] and McCloud [ ] for discussions of meaning in line forms.
More importantly for my discussion, instead of focusing on an abstracted or quasi-linguistic experience, many visual poems, like the example above, rely on verbal and visual prompts coalescing into a broader meaning. Drucker notes that recent scholarship of concrete and visual poetry makes evident that the terms of poetic tradition or linguistic analysis … [are] inadequate to confront the synthetic sensibility of the present—work which poses profound questions … about the processes of signification so essential to these projects as they are conceived in aesthetic terms.
Arguably, only through a different theory of meaning and aesthetics than the Saussurean-infused models, which limit meaning to symbolic language, can the scholarship of visual and concrete poetry move beyond descriptions of fraught signification to something of more significance.
I will focus on embodiment in relation to frame semantics, fictive motion, and conceptual blending, which will illustrate how visual and verbal cues synthesize through simulation to construct experiential and propositional meanings out of simple representations. Obviously there are many other relevant areas of cognitive and literary research, most notably studies of iconicity see Hiraga  and Taub  , image schemas, and conceptual metaphor, but I can only gesture to these for the sake of brevity.
This paper focuses on these particular cognitive frameworks because they connect broad and specific levels of embodied knowledge and illustrate the synthesis of visual and verbal modes of communication through them, offering the beginnings of a cohesive methodology for engaging multimodal texts like these. The critical aspect of embodiment that I focus on is mind-body syncretism most prevalently found in cognitive linguistic and psycholinguistic research, which shows that our bodily experiences motivate conceptualization and are, therefore, expressed in all of our meaning systems cultural, literary, etc.
In an embodied mind, it is conceivable that the same neural system engaged in perception or in bodily movement plays a central role in conception. That is, it is possible that the very mechanisms responsible for perception, movements, and object manipulation could be responsible for conceptualizations and reasoning. Bodily engagements with the environment develop image schematic, imagistic, and other broader, experiential components that all contribute and are essential to the construction of meaning.
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Through an embodied view of meaning which includes, but is not totalized and subsumed in language and symbols, the complexity of the materialist aesthetic found in visual poetry can be better articulated. More importantly, by starting from the body, the experiential motivations for many of the emergent meanings within the poems can be located. For cognitive research, visual poetry also offers an interesting data set against which to test conclusive frameworks, since they corroborate the holism of the body-mind model of meaning but also illustrate how experiential meaning can prompt propositional meaning without relying solely on linguistic content.
In this regard, not just conceptual information, but experiential knowledge prompted by non-verbal cues like visual perception, images, image schematic content, and layout all contribute to textual meanings.
Importantly, although not necessarily obviously due to the macrostructure of frames, this necessitates an embodied view, since frames offer a broad context for elaborate connections between conception and perception. The cognitive notion of the frame then is particularly salient for a discussion of visual poetry since it offers an experiential, embodied basis, from image schematic and metaphorical conceptions through to socio-cultural ideals, for inter-relating the verbal and visual cues. An important feature of embodiment and cognition that draws on various levels of experiential knowledge is mental simulation.
Simulation is the process of mentally recreating bodily experiences, from sensori-motor actions and affect to social interactions, in order to interpret linguistic or visual prompts. They note how most viewers simulate the bodily process of stomping on something in the process of constructing the metaphoric meaning, thus illustrating how the activation of sensorimotor information facilitates conceptual understanding by replicating actions alluded to by the metaphor. Also, because simulation activates experiential knowledge it contributes to inferences about the broader meaning of a text, both in literal and figurative understandings Bergen This embodied process occurs within domains and across domains, and within and across communicative modes and tropes, making simulation essential to the interconnection and interpretation of both imagistic and linguistic cues in visual poetry.
Talmy distinguishes the tension between factive and fictive states as essential to fictive motion constructions. The bodily process of continuously scanning across a field to engage with the totality of the fence motivates the fictive motion construction,3 which in turn simulates to make representations active, even if only in our perceptual and conceptual mental imagery Bergen ; Langacker Two particular fictive motion paths described by Talmy are especially important for my analysis.
Demonstrative and access paths attribute specific relationships between things and their environment, making the material locations of the letters and words on the page more salient in visual poetry. As such, it focuses on an object that supposedly moves to a new position. Paths can also operate as frame-relative motion, since they can occur within a particular perspectival space, in visual poetry prompted by the page as a frame of reference.
For a materialistic poetry obsessed with visual cues, fictivity tied to form and meaning helps prompt the simulation and construction of meanings well beyond the initial cues. Blending requires at least two inputs with cross-mappings which project essential knowledge into a third, blended space to form an emergent structure. This emergent structure in turn can either remain as such, be blended with other inputs to contribute to another blend, or be projected backwards into the original inputs to assess, query, or inform aspects of these inputs.
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Blending is largely complementary with metaphor theory Grady since it can articulate a variety of metaphorical constructions, from conceptual metaphor and analogy to allegory i. Most importantly for this discussion, visual and verbal aspects qualify as inputs and contribute to the eventual emergent structure of the blend.
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I will compare and contrast two of these poems, both handwritten but in different styles, to show how they manipulate the materiality of letterforms to construct a broader, meaningful experience. To begin to unpack and discuss just how much is constructed out of this simple representation requires all of the cognitive tools I have outlined and a few others too.
Two recognizable words arguably present the first tangible clues as to what this poem is about and how it should be interpreted. Thus, emergent structure constructs a more specific understanding of both words since the pond becomes a site of action, rather than perhaps serenity, and the sound is specifically produced by the water. The frame blend alters how the reader engages with the rest of the components of the poem. The frame blend acts as an input for the next blend, which relates the lines and the fragmented word into a cohesive understanding.
The lines, which could mean anything from the outline of a vase to a snake on first glance, become more specific. As a schematic view, prompted by the drawn lines and the overall layout of the poem, the words act formally. In the blend, the lines illustrate a location by showing the cross- sectional view of the side of the pond. The materiality of the letters, and their orientation on the page, reinforces the schematic representation of the edge of a pond.
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This schematic blend again, my term based on its dominant feature constructs a more specific understanding of the actions that have led to the sound in the initial blend, since they construct a location in which it occurs thus ruling out a fisherman falling overboard in the middle of the pond. Moreover, the orientation of the letters and words left to right, top to bottom, reinforces the scanning patterns for reading a text written in English, which in turn reinforces the order of action prompted in the frame blend.
Thus, the schematic blend offers a more specific location within the frame and reinforces the actions and effects within it. These lines, which clearly map to the location, also simulate as fictive motion. The specific placement of the lines prompts the letters to be read separately from their composite words.
In blending the letters and the fictive motion lines, the frame and schematic blends contribute to the emergent structure by having already constructed a specific location and having viewed the letters and words as material objects. The frog returns to inform and question the earlier inputs and blends through the simulation of its expected movements which are appropriated from experiential knowledge.
In this representation, the frog, once visually present, disappears from sight but remains, for a time, sensually in our ears. Importantly, through the construction of a factive agent of motion and disturbance, the fictive motion that constructed it in the first place is problematized, since obviously factive motion cannot also be fictive motion. By simulating the understood actions of frogs, the reader of the poem constructs a more comprehensive understanding of the prompts and infers and interprets their multiple meanings within the context of the frame of the pond.
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One final aspect of this poem that is essential to its layered construction, and that facilitates the ease of simulation, is its perspective. By employing a less commonly experienced view of a cross-sectioned pond, rather than the more dominant human view from above, bpNichol inter-relates the prompts in more meaningful ways. Thus, the poem presents the most economical, even if slightly less familiar, perspective.
In fact, the perspective itself highlights the agent rather than the observer, since it reinforces a view from lying on the muddy edge of the pond rather than standing beside it. As we have seen in this poem, the frame, schematic, and fictive motion blends take a simple representation and develop a complex and specific description of a lively scene through frame evocation and simulation.
While the order of these blends may not be wholly fixed or even necessary—since, for example, one could easily run the fictive motion blend first to construct the frog and then develop the meanings from there, or since it is possible to have compatible simulations run simultaneously Bergen — each of them is required for understanding the poem.
Likewise, it offers an existential depiction of the frog as being composed of, rather than being extricable from, its environment since the grass, pond, and water all contribute to its material composition and meaning a very ecological representation. What has happened then in this poem is a shift from simplicity to complexity through a minimalist presentation of prompts, tied in critical ways to a rich frame, which in turn blend and construct propositional knowledge through simulation and frame evocation.
In the end, we could tell someone the brief story of this poem as I have just done , but it would take much more than a couple of drawn lines and two and a half words. This poem, therefore, challenges the common idea that propositional and experiential knowledge are separate ways of sharing meaning. Rather, through this analysis, we can see that they are inextricably linked, one leading into the other. In this way, this poem harnesses experiential knowledge and simulation to construct a poem that simultaneously employs and questions its own materials.
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The materiality of the letters, words, page, and lines all posit various perceptual and conceptual meanings which develop into a cohesive experience while at the same time constructing aspects that alter or qualify the initial inputs. However, these two poems, while using similar cognitive mechanisms, construct dramatically different meanings.
The poem itself offers a very simplistic image of rough, wavy water with perhaps a white cap, buoy, and boat or log on it. I use this response, in part, as the basis for my analysis in which I posit this poem as a series of blends much like the previous poem, rather than one blend with three inputs of the title, the image, and the handwritten word. Here, the title and the image blend to reinforce the referent of water as well as to specify some features of and objects on it. Nonetheless, the water is not contained in any specific ways, nor are there any specific agents, except perhaps a boater.
The emergent structure is visible language that bears its referents, with letters becoming associated objects. The letters become metonymic, highlighting aspects of the frame while offering a reading of the forms as naturalistic symbols. But the forms of these letters also prompt a fictive motion blend that is tied to the materialistic reading of the letters and word. Handwriting evokes fictive motion through the simulation of the movement of the actual hand writing the text.
Thus, the fictive motion in this case traces the letters and the water while simultaneously evoking the frame of writing.